The Hien Lam Cac Pavilion (Pavilion of Everlasting Clarity) was built in 1821-22 in memory of the mandarins who served the Nguyen dynasty. At 13m in height, this is the tallest building in the citadel. In front of the pavilion stand the nine dynastic urns, which were cast in bronze in 1835-37 and which each weigh between 2 and 2.5t. Each urn is dedicated to an emperor, symbolising one of his qualities.
Photography © Quintin Lake, 2010